ITC Working Papers are intended to disseminate the findings of ITC research prior to peer review and publication in an academic journal. Feedback from readers is welcome and comments on papers should be sent directly to the author, at his or her email address.
The Relationship Between Gender Empowerment andThis working paper examines the relation between gender equality, economic development, and female smoking rates. Specifically, the ratio of female-to-male current smoking rates and an indicator of gender empowerment - the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) - was examined across 74 countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic. The findings identify a challenge for countries undergoing economic development and greater gender equality, and highlight the need for evidence-based tobacco control policies, particularly in countries where women's smoking rates are low, and women's empowerment is increasing.
Female-to-Male Cigarette Smoking Rates Across 74 Countries
|The ITC Bangladesh Wave 1 National Report provided evidence that tobacco has become increasingly affordable since 1990, and therefore strong policy action in the domain of tobacco taxation is urgently needed to reduce overall tobacco consumption and prevalence. This working paper was prepared to provide policymakers in Bangladesh with recommendations for an evidence-based tobacco taxation strategy based on economic analysis of tobacco purchasing data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 1 Survey.|
|In this paper, we present the findings from the ITC Policy Evaluation Surveys and Enumerations conducted in Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010, which provide overwhelming evidence of the need for raising tobacco taxes in Bangladesh. The results show that average cigarette and bidi consumption in Bangladesh remained unabated between 2009 and 2010, in response to the moderate tax changes on these two products. The estimates of price elasticity of demand confirm that cigarette and bidi consumption could be significantly reduced by increasing taxes on these products.|